Community Ecology

Some of the chemical and nutritional changes produced by plants, for instance, to ward off attacks by plant herbivores, are influenced by soil mychorrizal fungi.  Researchers wanted to know if this association could also affect a host-parasite interaction aboveground so  Monarch butterfly pupae were infected with a protozoan parasite and given leaves from six different milkweed species which were innoculated with four species of arbuscular mychorrizal fungi (AMF)

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